BSE FAQs
S&P BSE SENSEX
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Calculations

1. What are the profits and losses in case of a futures position ?

The profits and losses would depend upon the difference between the price at which the position is opened and the price at which it is closed. Let us take some examples.

Example 1
  • Position - Long - Buy June S&P BSE Sensex Futures @ 15000
  • Payoff –
    • Profit - if the futures price goes up
    • Loss - if the futures price goes down
  • Calculation -The profit or loss would be equal to fifteen times the difference in the two rates.

    • If June S&P BSE Sensex Futures is sold @ 15500 there would be a profit of 500 points which is equal to Rs. 7500 (500*15).
    • However if the June S&P BSE Sensex However if the June S&P BSE Sensex Futures is sold @ 14700, there would be a loss of 300 points which is equal to Rs. 4500 (300*15).

Example 2
  • Position - Short – Sell June S&P BSE Sensex Futures @ 15500
  • Payoff –
    • Profit - if the futures price goes down
    • Loss - if the futures price goes up
  • Calculation -The profit or loss would be equal to fifteen times the difference in the two rates.

    • If June S&P BSE Sensex Futures is bought @ 15900 there would be a loss of 400 points which is equal to Rs. 6000 (400*15).
    • However if the June S&P BSE Sensex Futures is bought @ 15200, there would be a profit of 300 points which is equal to Rs. (300*15).

2. What happens to the profit or loss due to daily settlement ?

In case the position is not closed the same day, the daily settlement would alter the cash flows depending on the settlement price fixed by the exchange every day. However, the net total of all the flows every day would always be equal to the profit or loss calculated above. Profit or loss would only depend upon the opening and closing price of the position, irrespective of how the rates have moved in the intervening days.

Let's take the illustration given in example 1 where a long position is opened at 15000 and closed at 15800 resulting in a profit of 800 points or Rs. 12000. Let's assume that the position was closed on the fifth day from the day it was taken. Let's also assume three different series of closing settlement prices on these days and look at the resultant cash flows.

Example 3

Daily closing settlement price

  Case 1 Case 2 Case 3
Day 1 14900 14800 14500
Day 2 15350 15300 15100
Day 3 15280 15400 14950
Day 4 14950 14700 15200
Position closed 15800 15800 15800


Case 1 Settlement Price Calculation Profit / Loss
Position opened 15000      
Day 1   14900 14900-15000 -100
Day 2   15350 15350-14900 450
Day 3   15280 15280 -15350 -70
Day 4   14950 14950 - 15280 -330
Position closed 15800   15800 - 14950 850
Net Profit/ Loss       800


Case2 Settlement Price Calculation Profit / Loss
Position opened 15000      
Day 1   14800 14800 - 15000 -200
Day 2   15300 15300-14800 500
Day 3   15400 15400-15300 100
Day 4   14700 14700 - 15400 -700
Position closed 15800   15800-14700 1100
Net Profit/ Loss       800


Case3 Settlement Price Calculation Profit / Loss
Position opened 15000      
Day 1   14500 114500 - 15000 -500
Day 2   15100 15100 -14500 600
Day 3   14950 14950 -15100 -150
Day 4   15200 15200 - 14950 250
Position closed 15800   15800 -15200 600
Net Profit/ Loss       800

In all the cases the net resultant is a profit of 800 points, which is the difference between the closing and opening price, irrespective of the daily settlement price and different MTM flows.
 
3. How does the Initial Margin affect the above profit or loss ?
The initial margin is only a security provided by the client through the clearing member to the exchange. It can be withdrawn in full after the position is closed. Therefore, it does not affect the above calculation of profit or loss.

However, there may be a funding cost / transaction cost in providing the security. This cost must be added to your total transaction costs to arrive at the true picture. Other items in transaction costs would include brokerage, stamp duty etc.


4. What is a spread position ?

A calendar spread is created by taking simultaneously two positions:
  • A long position in a futures series expiring in any calendar month
  • A short position in the same futures as 1 above but for a series expiring in any month other than the 1 above.
Examples of Calendar Spreads
  • Long June S&P BSE Sensex Futures – Short July S&P BSE Sensex Futures.
  • Short July S&P BSE Sensex Futures – Long August S&P BSE Sensex Futures

A spread position must be closed by reversing both the legs simultaneously. The reversal of 1 above would be a sale of June S&P BSE Sensex Futures while simultaneously buying the July S&P BSE Sensex Futures.


5. How are spread rates calculated ? Please illustrate with an example.

The profit or loss in case of spreads depends only upon the difference between the rates for the two different calendar months. The real position is only of the differential irrespective of the two rates.

Let’s take an example.

Example 4 – assuming the futures are being traded at the following rates

  June July August
Bid Ask Bid Ask Bid Ask
Rate 16200 16250 17000 17100 17500 17550

The spread calculations are as follows

Spread Calculation Rate
June - July 17000 - 16200 800
July -August 17500 - 17000 500
June - August 17500 - 16200 1300



6. How do we calculate spreads in case of two way quotations ?

In case the prices are quoted as bid and offer, the spreads would also have a two way quotation. While calculating use thumb rule that the spread rate calculated must have the maximum spread possible from the two given rates.


Example 5 – Lets assume the futures are being traded at the following rates
   
  June July August
Bid Ask Bid Ask Bid Ask
Rate 16200 16250 17000 17100 17500 17550

The spreads would be calculated as follows.

Spread Calculation Rate
June - July 17000 -16250 & 17100- 16200 750 900
July -August 17500 -17100 & 17590- 17000 400 590
June - August 17500 -16250 & 17590-16200 1250 1390

Another thumb rule to check the correctness of calculation is that the bid offer difference of the spread must be equal to the sum of the bid-offer differences of the two futures contract. For example the bid-offer difference for June-August spread is 140 points which is equal to the sum of the bid-offer difference of June Futures 50 points and August Futures 90 points.

7. Please give a simple illustration to explain the mechanics of spread trading ?

To illustrate lets assume that the market is in Contango i.e. the futures price is higher than the cash underlying price and the futures price of far month is higher than the futures price of the near month.

  June July August
Rates 15500 16200 17000

The spread calculations are as follows

Spread Calculation Rate
June - July 16200 -15500 700
July -August 17000 -16200 800
June - August 17000 -15500 1500

Example 6

  • Position –
    • Receiving the spread – Buy near month futures + Sell far month futures
    • Paying the spread – Sell near month futures + Buy far month futures
  • Payoff –
    • Profit - Spread received > spread paid
    • Loss - Spread received< spread paid
  • June- July spread is paid at 700 points . If June -July spread can be reversed at higher than 700 points it would result in profit. Assuming that the spread is reversed at 800 points a profit of 100 points or Rs1500 would result.
Open Spread Sell June Buy July
Pay 700 15500 16200
       
Close   Buy June Sell July
Receive 800 15500 16300
Profit 100 0 100

Please note that the spread profit depends only upon the differential received or paid, irrespective of the futures rates. In the above example let's take three cases where reversal is done at 900 points but with substantially different levels for June and July.

Case 1 -17000 and 17900

Open Spread Sell June Buy July
Pay 700 15500 16200
       
Close   Buy June Sell July
Receive 900 17000 17900
Profit 200 1500 1700

Case 2 - 16550 and 17450     

Open Spread Sell June Buy July
Pay 700 15500 16200
       
Close   Buy June Sell July
Receive 900 16550 17450
Profit 200 1050 1250
 

Case 3 – 16000 and 16900

Open Spread Sell June Buy July
Pay 700 15500 16200
       
Close   Buy June Sell July
Receive 900 16000 16900
Profit 200 500 700


You would notice that the profit is always 200 points irrespective of the rates as the spread received is constant at 900 points.